Because of the absence of dowry, one of the primary causes of sex selection leading to female foeticide, the Scheduled Tribes are assumed not to practice sex selection. They consistently had much higher CSR. This report shows that the last vestige of India on female foeticide has fallen and the GoI is doing little to arrest the falling CSR among the STs.
J&K is facing a monumental challenge on the missing girls as result of female foeticide. The Child Sex Ratio fell by drastic 79 points from 941 in 2001 to 862 in 2011 as technology enabling pre-conception and pre-natal sex determination and sex selective abortion became easily available. It is the Muslim majority which is practicing sex selectoin more than the Hindus in the State. Mahr, the reverse dowry had little impact on son preference.
This is the first ever study examining decoys, Mukhbirs, and telephone helplines schemes of 13 States. Though nabbing those conducting sex selections during the act requires a pregnant woman willing to act as decoy customer or Mukhbirs, India has failed to launch a national scheme for enforcement of the PC&PNDT Act.
The implementation of the PC&PNDT Act remains extremely poor. No license of any erring doctor was suspended in Bihar from inception of the PC&PNDT Act in 1994 to present despite cancellation of registration of 212 clinics, sealing of 139 clinics, suspension of 72 clinics and seizure of 104 sonography machines. It is as if only the machines are at fault!
The State of the PC&PNDT Act: India’s losing battle against female foeticide is the first ever comprehensive study on the status of implementation of the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act, 1994. It exposes the lack of seriousness to implement the Act despite falling Child Sex Ratio.
Madhya Pradesh has the highest number of female infanticide and female foeticide. Despite being the first State to launch the Ladli Laxmi Scheme, there is no improvement of Child Sex Ratio.
From maintaining Child Sex Ratio of well above 1,000 girls throughout the first sixty years of 20th century, Goa hit the rock bottom at the turn of the 21st century with CSR of 938 in 2001. Goa is the only State which legalises son preference. Not surprisingly it launched schemes to arrest the declining CSR.
If under-5 mortality rate of 48 deaths per 1,000 births in India is taken into account in Uttarakhand, as per the Annual Health Survey, the CSR in Uttarakhand would have reduced to 813 in 2011-2012 and 819 in 2012-2013. Uttarakhand is failing to arrest the falling CSR.
The PC&PNDT Act was enacted in 1994 but there is simply little understanding of the Act and its implementation. This is the first repository of the judgments under the PC&PNDT Act aimed to create technical capacities among the stakeholders.
Haryana, India's No.1 State with the lowest child sex ratio has been systematically failing to ensure retention of the girl child. Even its Ladli scheme discriminates against the first girl child who cannot get the benefits unless the second girl child is born in the family. Haryana is failing on all counts for improving the CSR.
This report highlights absolute lack of seriousness of the Himachal Pradesh Government to combat female foeticide. Under the Beti Hai Anmol Yojana, the State government provides a meager Rs 5,100 but its coverage is extremely limited with no monitoring. There is little improvement.
This report examines female infanticide worldwide with Liechtenstein having the highest skewed sex ratio at birth with 126 males/100 females, followed by China, Armenia, India, Azerbaijan, Viet Nam etc. The report exposes that not only ultrasonography machines but 'reproductive tourism' is the next cause of female foeticide. There is an urgent need for more effective UN interventions.
In its pursuit of introducing India’s civilisational values in the field of medicine, the GoI has proposed amendments to the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1971 to allow AYUSH practitioners, homeopaths, nurses and ANMs to conduct abortions! This effectively means the GoI launching "Beti Mar Do (kill daughters) Campaign".